Digestion / Metabolism




 Related Topic: Fermentation

 Flatulence is the production of a digestive gas, often expelled out of the digestive tract through the mouth or anus. Flatulence comes from the Latin "flatus" which means "blowing". Flatulence is the result of the fermentation of decomposed matter; Including non-odorous gases: methane (flammable gas produced by bacteria), carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulphurous odorous gases. Gases are all the more present as food decomposes. The poor absorption of certain carbohydrates (lactose, fructose ...) can also cause flatulence. More rarely, giardiasis, a benign parasitosis of the intestine, is the cause of flatulence. On average, one person releases 0.5 to 1.5 liters of gas per day on 12 to 25 occasions.

In the case of Flatulence it is about eructations (rot) with often sensation of gravity of the stomach, poor digestion. Most often it is a tic eructation: swallowing of air followed by a belching that relieves. Moreover, the painful threshold of these patients is often lowered: there is an abnormal sensitivity to a normal quantity of gas. Becoming aware of the mechanisms of this disorder can suppress it.

Sometimes it is a real excess of gas: to the air swallowed with each swallowing (2 to 4 liters per day), can be added the deglutitions due to the chewing gum, the sweets and the gases of the drinks.


The causes of flatulence:


The volume of gas varies greatly depending on the individual and the diet (200 to 4200 ml / day). Most often it is actually an irritable colon with an abnormal sensitivity to a normal amount of gas as shown by several studies. ?? All foods go through bacterial fermentation, but some cause more gas than others especially those that contain sugar (natural or artificial), carbohydrates and dietary fiber. In addition, dairy products consumed in large quantities over a short period (two or three glasses of milk at lunch, for example), will produce more gas.


Related Topic:



In humans, the intestine is divided into two parts: the small intestine, where the most active part of digestion occurs and most nutrients are absorbed, and the large intestine, where the reabsorption of Water and fecal production. The large intestine terminates in the anal orifice.

The action of certain bacteria or undigested carbohydrates leads to a fermentation in the intestine of man. Gases such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide can then form in sufficient quantity to cause bloating and pain.


The presence of gas in the digestive system (esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine) comes from two sources:


  1. Air intake
  2. Food decomposition by enzymes and bacteria in the stomach and intestines.


The volume of intestinal gas varies greatly from person to person. An adult can produce 2 to 20 liters of gas per day for an average of 14 to 20 episodes of pets per day, however some individuals will experience up to 140 episodes per day.


Most often the gases are odorless and consist of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes methane. Odorous gases (less than 1% of the gases removed) originate from bacteria in the large intestine that produce gas containing sulfur.


Abundant gas production is often caused by poor absorption of carbohydrates (lactose from milk, fructose from certain fruits), complex sugars (cabbage raffinose, asparagus and other vegetables), starches (potatoes, corn, wheat and Cereals) and fiber (beans, peas, cereal bran). Moreover, certain foods produce gas in some people and not in others, this depends on the presence in the colon of bacteria that assimilate the hydrogen produced by other bacteria. From the balance between these two varieties of bacteria depends the amount of gas produced.


In addition to a large amount of gas in the intestines, the sensation of bloating accompanied by pain may be due to an irritable colon or more severe intestinal problems, in which case advice should be obtained from A competent medical staff. The same applies to cases of aerophagia.








Bloating may have numerous causes. Swallowing too much air, drinking too much at mealtime or making bad food combinations may all contribute to bloating. Not only is it important to chew properly in order to stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes, but it is equally important to take a reasonable time to eat.

Here are some small tips to reduce the chances of developing bloating:

  • Minimize sugar- and fat-rich foods, which have a tendency to ferment in the colon.
  • Respect a logical order with the foods you eat. (Eat candies and treats between meals. Eat raw vegetables at the beginning of the meal since they are digested faster than proteins. This will avoid having foods in queue for digestion in the bowel).
  • Make sure you do not have a food intolerance, which could aggravate bloating.
  • Generously use seasoning herbs and spices such as basil, thyme, sage, mint and fennel. They tend to stimulate digestion and reduce bloating.
  • Avoid fermentation-prone foods: carbohydrates (pastas, cereals, bread, etc), raw vegetables (especially cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, etc) and legumes. Preferably cook them with thyme, basil or fennel. If you are eating them from caned food, rinse them thoroughly twice.
  • Avoid sodas that only add up gas in the digestive tract.
  • Avoid eating rapidly. This involves more air to be swallowed, which in turn aggravates bloating.




Eating in a calm, relax environment favours a better digestion. Taking meals on the go does not allow the digestive system to prepare itself and generate the optimal digestive process.




Avoid over-drinking at mealtimes. Water should be the main ingested fluid in the day and should ideally be taken between meals.




The simplest way to avoid bloating is to keep a diary of what is eaten everyday day and the moment when bloating appears. This will help identify the foods that are responsible for the bloating and avoid them whenever possible in the future. It is still the best way to control bloating problems.




Constipation is due to a slowing of the intestinal transit. Stools are hard and dry, so difficult to evacuate. Constipation also reduces the number of stools per week. There is however no precise frequency to which one becomes constipated: it depends on our personal, normal stool frequency.


Constipation disorder of the intestinal function characterized by a slowing of the transit and by a decrease of the frequency of the evacuation of the feces.


Constipation occurs when fecal matter has been in the intestine for too long. As a result, stools contain overdigated residues. Materials, usually dehydrated, can also be over-hydrated, due to excess secretions caused by irritation of the colon. There is then a false diarrhea, which may alternate with constipation properly so called. Symptoms vary from one subject to another: unpleasant and more or less permanent sensation of bloating of the abdomen, discomfort of defecation, impression that the rectum is not empty after the saddle, etc. However, the most common and generally sufficient criterion is the rarity of stool emission (less than three stools per week).

Constipation can be the symptom of a disease. In particular, constipation that appears and persists for several weeks in a person over forty or fifty years of age requires colonoscopy (examination of the colon by endoscopy).

But, most often, the cause is benign: diet low in liquids or fibers, small psychological disturbances, absorption of certain drugs.


Treatment, essentially dietetic, is to bring enough fluids to the body and to adopt a balanced, high-fiber diet. Sport can also be beneficial, at least some physical activity (daily walk for a senior or regular gym exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles). Laxative medicines, which accelerate intestinal transit, are very effective, but their prolonged or repeated use is discouraged.








 A lack of fibres in the diet is one of the main causes of constipation complaints. To correct the situation, privilege fresh fruits, raw vegetables and whole grain cereals. If desired, grounded flax seeds and oat bran can be added to the diet to further increase fibre intake. An adequate fibre intake increases stool volume, thereby stimulating bowel movement as the intestines feel full. Good fats are indicated as they will help lubricate the gastrointestinal tract. Best sources of good fats include fish, flaxseed, hemp, olive, safflower, sunflower and canola oils. Varying the sources of good fats is yet the ideal situation to benefit from a diversity of nutrients.




Dietary fibres should be thoroughly hydrated. It allows them to inflate properly and favour intestinal transit. In order to optimize fibre inflation, drink 2 to 3 litres of water daily. The key to a proper hydration is drinking regularly. Drinking 2 litres in a 2-hour period is not as beneficial as spreading drinking throughout the day. The body will appreciate regular hydration.




Regular physical activity improves intestinal transit. All exercises are helpful. However, running is considered the best exercise for stimulating bowel movement. Whatever the exercise you choose (walking, running, swimming or cycling), it is important to do it 3-4 times a week, for 30 minutes each time.




When you feel the urge, do not delay. The more the stools remain inside the colon, the more they become dry and hard to evacuate. Do not use stimulant laxatives in the long term; they can make the intestines lazy and aggravate constipation when we discontinue use.




Diarrhea describes frequent, loose even liquid stools. Diarrhea is often the symptom of another health condition, such as food poisoning, food intolerance, gastroenteritis, an inflammatory bowel disease, etc. An antibiotic treatment can also cause diarrhea because the antibiotic destroys the good bacteria of the intestinal flora along with the pathogenic bacteria it was targeted at. A visit to the doctor is recommended if a severe diarrhea persists for more than 48 hours or if there is blood in the stools.


Acute diarrhea can be caused by germs (salmonella, colibacilli), parasites (amoebae) or viruses (enteroviruses), and can last from one to seven Days (or sometimes longer). They contract by ingesting infected water or food. Beyond the discomfort caused by acute diarrhea, the risk of dehydration is the main danger especially for the infant and the frail people. Chronic diarrhea is characterized by the frequent emission of liquid (or very soft) stools over a fairly long period of time ranging from eight to twenty days or more. Several causes can cause chronic diarrhea problems:

Intestinal wall injury due to inflammation or tumor

Food malabsorption (gluten intolerance)


Hyperactivity of intestinal transit (often caused by hyperthyroidism)

Pathological secretion of the intestinal epithelium (secretory diarrhea)

In cases of chronic diarrhea it is important to clearly identify the cause in order to undertake the appropriate treatment. Consultation with a health professional is indicated.









When suffering from acute diarrhea, we should avoid irritating foods or foods that could cause abdominal cramps as these foods can aggravate the symptoms. Once the intestinal transit time is back to normal, these foods should be integrated back into the diet progressively. In fact, we aim at giving the digestive system a break.

Foods to be best avoided are:

  • dairy products
  • raw fruits or vegetables (except bananas)
  • meats
  • whole grain cereal products
  • strong spices
  • fatty or fried foods
  • desserts and candies

Vegetable broths, rice and cooked vegetables should be privileged. Once the symptoms have considerably reduced, the cereals should be first reintroduced, such as white bread and rice. Only once the symptoms are completely gone should whole grains be consumed, because taken too soon, they could irritate the already fragile intestines. If we digest these foods easily, raw fruits and vegetables can be reintroduced, followed by dairy products and finally meats.




The water from rice cooking is very beneficial to help stabilize diarrhea. To obtain it, cook rice in much more water than necessary for at least 30 minutes. Then separate the rice from the water and cool it down. Drink small amounts of this water many times daily. To avoid dehydration, a simple but effective recipe is to mix equal amounts of pulp-free orange juice to pure water and add half a teaspoon of salt. Drink slowly throughout the day to supply your body with the necessary electrolytes and help rehydration.




Wash you hands frequently, especially after going to the bathroom, before eating or before cooking. If the diarrhea is associated with antibiotics, allow two hours between taking the antibiotic and taking the probiotics.




Gallbladder, an organ used as a reservoir for bile, present in most vertebrates.

The gallbladder is a membranous sac in the shape of a pear, situated beneath the right lobe of the liver, at the height of the ninth or tenth rib. It is about 7.5 cm long and, in its widest part, 2.5 cm in diameter. Its capacity varies from 30 to 50 ml.


The gallbladder is disposed obliquely towards the back and left of the abdomen. It is composed of an enlarged base, then a body (the main part), which gradually narrows to the neck (or pelvis), which terminates in the cystic duct. The latter joins the hepatic duct (which contains the bile from the liver) to form the bile duct, which flows into the small intestine. When the vesicle is too large, the bottom slightly protrudes beyond the anterior margin of the liver, and may be felt by the doctor.

The wall of the gall bladder has a thin serous membrane (of peritoneal origin), an average layer of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle, and an internal layer of mucous membrane.


Between the meals the gall bladder concentrates and stores the bile secreted by the liver, which passes through the liver and cystic ducts, and absorbs the water and the electrolytes. During meals, following the arrival of lipids in the duodenum, the vesicle discharges the bile it contains by two mechanisms, one reflex nerve and the other hormonal. The role of bile is to cause the emulsion of dietary fat, so that the latter can be absorbed through the intestinal mucosa and pass into the bloodstream.






The gallbladder may be the seat of a lithiasis, forming calculi, stony concretions sometimes reaching the size of a small pear. After duodenal ulcer, biliary lithiasis is the most common chronic gastrointestinal disorder in industrialized countries. Being formed from the salts that make up the bile, the calculations are usually made of cholesterol, but sometimes also calcium, as well as a pigment characteristic of bile, bilirubin.


The development of calculations seems to be due to two mechanisms: the presence in the bile of excessive amounts of the constitutive substances of the calculations, and the retention of the bile in the vesicle for a long period. Women and the elderly are more prone to gallstones than the rest of the population.

In some cases, lithiasis (often asymptomatic) may be complicated by hepatic colic: this is the migration of a calculation to the bile duct, resulting in sudden and severe pain at the top and right of the abdomen. Another possible complication is acute cholecystitis (acute inflammation of the gall bladder).


In general, calculations of the vesicle do not pose particular problems and do not require treatment. However, if the lithiasis has already given rise to symptoms and complications, or if a calculation is too large, surgical removal of the vesicle (cholecystectomy) can be performed.

In patients who can not be operated on, the calculations can be dissolved by a natural bile salt administered orally. The use of surgery can also be avoided, if there is no complication in progress, by a method of disintegration of calculations without penetration of instruments into the body, called lithotripsy (or lithotripsy) extracorporeal. In this case, an apparatus is used which sends different types of waves (electromagnetic, for example) intended to spray the calculation.




Inflammation of the gallbladder, or cholecystitis, is also a common disorder. Depending on the severity of the attack, it is called chronic or acute. Acute cholecystitis is usually the complication of a lithiasis. It results in pain associated with fever and may evolve into peritonitis.




There are also benign tumors and cancers of the gall bladder.


Cancer of the gall bladder causes symptoms only at an advanced stage ie when the tumor has begun to spread to neighboring organs (liver ...). Here is a list of symptoms found in the most cases:

  1. Quick Weight Loss
  2. Vomiting
  3. Possible jaundice




Detoxication is the action of eliminating toxins. Toxins can be accumulated by the body over years, through our diet (via food additives), our environment (air pollutants for example), or via an imbalance in the body functions (such as water retention or constipation).


Hepato-detox: Depurative Treatment

Product composed entirely of plants for the evacuation of toxins and to stimulate the functions of vital organs (liver,spleen,pancréas, gallbladder).

For preventive and/ or curative treatments, also as a support for many other BIO-Vega products and treatments






Favour easy-to-digest foods, in other words, foods that won’t overload eliminating organs such as the liver. Hence, all fatty foods such as sauces, dairy, desserts and candies, caffeine, alcohol, sodas, etc. are to be avoided. Moreover, hearty meals should be replaced by more frequent, smaller meals.

Choose fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats, sprouts, vegetable broths and fibre-rich foods in order to support the body’s natural detox functions. Foods that favour a proper bile secretion such as black radish, artichokes, turmeric, rosemary, celery, etc. will be advantageously added to the diet.




Water remains the best beverage during a detox program. It is crucial to drink plenty of water every day to support toxin elimination. Fruit and vegetable juices can also help with cleansing. Fruit-rich smoothies (blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, etc.) boost the antioxidant power of the body to support toxin neutralisation, while carrot, beet, celery and parsley juices will support liver, kidney, lymph and blood detox. Peppermint, lemon balm, ginger herbal teas or the addition of fresh lemon to beverage will facilitate digestion.




Physical activity will speed up the detox process. Practicing regular cardio exercises during a detox program helps elimination of toxins through sweat glands.




Smoking is an incredible source of toxins and noxious compounds for the body. Avoid smoking or being exposed to second-hand smoke during a detox program.





Some organs are subject to the accumulation of toxins, residues or accumulation of organic waste, among which are found more particularly the liver, the kidneys, the gallbladder and the spleen.




The liver has an average blood flow rate of 1.4 liters per minute; It contains permanently about 10% of the whole blood of the organism. It is also crossed by the blood of the pancreas and the spleen. Hepatic cells help the blood to assimilate nutrients, and excrete waste and toxins, as well as substances like steroids, estrogens and other hormones.

Phagocytes specific to the liver (see Immunity, System) cleans the blood of foreign substances and bacteria. The liver also digests many drugs and secretes cholesterol, bilirubin (degradation product of hemoglobin) and many other substances, including enzymes.


Diseases of the liver


Hepatitis is usually caused by a viral infection, but it may also be due to chemical agents or poisons, medicines, bacterial toxins or bacteria, amoebic disease and certain parasitic infections. Hepatitis can become chronic causing cirrhosis and progressive destruction of the organ. However, most cases of cirrhosis are associated with an abusive ingestion of alcohol, usually coupled with an insufficient diet. In cases of acute hepatitis, the disease is sometimes

Severe to the point that all liver cells are destroyed and the patient dies from hepatic insufficiency or occlusion of the blood vessels leaving the liver. Jaundice, a common symptom of hepatitis, is due to the accumulation of excessive amounts of bilirubin in the blood.

Some diseases such as diabetes mellitus are due to excessive amounts of lipids in the liver; Pituitary disorders and poisons such as alcohol and chloroform, which prevent correct oxidation in the liver, can have the same effects.




The kidneys have a bean shape, with a convex outer edge and a concave inner edge. The internal border presents in the middle a small depression called hile, at the level of which the blood vessels, the nerves, and the urinary tract enter or leave.


The renal artery brings blood from the heart through the aorta to the kidney. The blood emerges from the kidney through the renal vein and passes into the inferior vena cava, which leads it back to the heart.


The urinary tract is represented at the level of the hilum by the pelvis, which collects the urine from several small cavities in the shape of a funnel, the calyces. The pelvis continues through the ureter, which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

The kidney comprises a tissue which performs the purification function, called renal parenchyma, mixed with a protective interstitial tissue. The parenchyma consists of a very large number of nephrons, structural and functional units of the kidney, which are the urine-producing canals. In humans, each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons.


The kidney removes waste metabolism and possibly toxic substances (some drugs, for example), while preventing the escape of substances necessary for the proper functioning of the body. In fact, the kidney plays a primordial role in maintaining the hydro-electrolyte and acid-base balances of the body.


Kidney (structure)


The fundamental microscopic units of the kidney are the nephrons. Each one receives, from a branch of the renal artery, the blood which it will filter to form the urine. The nephron begins with a glomerulus (small peloton of blood capillaries) surrounded by the capsule of Bowman. It continues through a tubule that includes the proximal tube, then the handle of Henle in the form of a hairpin, and finally the distal tube. The various distal tubes are thrown into the collecting channels leading to the pelvis.

Kidney stones:


A urinary tract infection can result from a blockage of the normal flow of urine or an accumulation of urine that rises from the bladder to the kidneys. Recurrent infections may be due to kidney or bladder stones. Very rarely, bacteria in the blood can infect the kidneys. The urine eliminates a number of wastes such as urea, uric acid, oxalate and calcium

Urinary System, system of organs that produces and excretes urine from the body. Urine is a transparent yellow fluid containing unwanted wastes, mostly excess water, salts, and nitrogen compounds. The major organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, a pair of bean-shaped organs that continuously filter substances from the blood and produce urine. Urine flows from the kidneys through two long, thin tubes called ureters. With the aid of gravity and wavelike contractions, the ureters transport the urine to the bladder, a muscular vessel. The normal adult bladder can store up to about 0.5 litre of urine, which it excretes through the tube like urethra.

An average adult produces about 1.5 litres of urine each day, and the body needs, at a minimum, to excrete about 0.5 litre of urine daily to get rid of its waste products. Excessive or inadequate production of urine may indicate illness and doctors often use urinalysis (examination of a patient’s urine) as part of diagnosing disease. For instance, the presence of glucose, or blood sugar, in the urine is a sign of diabetes mellitus; bacteria in the urine signal an infection of the urinary system; and red blood cells in the urine may indicate cancer of the urinary tract.

Urinary calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, result from the gradual build-up of crystallized salts and minerals in the urine. Kidney stones can cause intense pain if they obstruct a passageway that carries urine. Usually, the stones pass through and out of the urinary tract on their own. If they fail to pass out of the body, they can be removed surgically or broken up nonsurgically by an ultrasound technique called lithotripsy.



The gall bladder


The gallbladder is a membranous sac in the shape of a pear under the right lobe of the liver. It is composed of an enlarged base, then a body (the main part), which gradually narrows to the neck (or pelvis), which terminates in the cystic duct. The latter joins the hepatic duct (which contains the bile from the liver) to form the bile duct, which flows into the small intestine. The wall of the gallbladder contains a fine serous membrane (of peritoneal origin), a medium layer of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle and an inner mucous layer.

Between the meals the gall bladder concentrates and stores the bile secreted by the liver, which passes through the liver and cystic ducts, and absorbs the water and the electrolytes. During meals, following the arrival of lipids in the duodenum, the vesicle discharges the bile it contains by two mechanisms, one reflex nerve and the other hormonal. The role of bile is to cause the emulsion of dietary fats, so that the latter can be absorbed through the intestinal mucosa and pass into the bloodstream.


The gallbladder may be the seat of a lithiasis, forming calculi, stony concretions sometimes reaching the size of a small pear. After the duodenal ulcer, biliary lithiasis is the most common chronic gastrointestinal disorder in industrialized countries. Being formed from the salts that make up the bile, the calculations are usually made of cholesterol, but sometimes also calcium, as well as a pigment characteristic of bile, bilirubin.

Located beneath the liver, the gallbladder receives and stores bile from this organ. During meals, it contracts and discharges its contents into the small intestine via the bile duct, to allow digestion of lipids ("fats").


The spleen


Located at the top and left of the abdomen, under the diaphragm, the spleen plays an important role in the purification of the blood. It is placed behind the stomach, and is held in the peritoneum by fibrous bands. It is about 13 cm long, 8 cm wide, and weighs an average of 200 g. The arterial blood which penetrates into the spleen is conveyed by the splenic artery (of the Greek word spleen, which means "spleen"). It is then drained by the splenic vein into the portal system. The nerves of the spleen are derived from the solar plexus.


The spleen is an integral part of the lymphatic system and the vascular system. It plays an important role in the immune response and participates in the destruction of old or abnormal blood cells. It also removes microorganisms from the bloodstream. The spleen extracts the iron from the hemoglobin contained in the red blood cells it destroys and keeps it in reserve. It also removes bile pigments.


Many diseases can affect the spleen. Splenomegaly, an abnormal increase in volume, is due to a bacterial, parasitic or viral infection such as infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis or malaria. Splenomegaly may also be due to cirrhosis of the liver

The rare splenic abscess is a bacterial infection that may result from the perforation of a peptic ulcer. Small benign abscesses can develop without being detected. Conversely, a bulky abscess does not go unnoticed. It may rupture in the abdominal cavity and cause peritonitis. The infection sometimes gains blood and spreads to the liver, where it again forms an abscess. The splenic abscess is treated with antibiotics or surgical drainage.