Bone is a living tissue that is in perpetual renewal. The organism destroys (resorption) and permanently regenerates the bone tissue. This is the process of bone turnover, which, with age, tends to slow down. Specialized cells, the osteoclasts, which release calcium in the blood, perform resorption. In contrast, osteoblasts are responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue, made from minerals in the blood. The balance between the two activities is regulated by hormones (parathormone and calcitonin) renal functions and by vitamin D.
In the elderly, the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of regeneration, leading to osteoporosis, the consequences of which include bone weakening, vertebral compression and fracture propensity (wrist and femoral neck).
CAUSES AND TYPES OF OSTEOPOROSIS
Some forms of localized osteoporosis are consecutive to trauma (eg hand or foot). Most often, the condition is generalized (primary osteoporosis) and touches the skeleton in a diffuse way while being more or less marked according to the bones:
Osteoporosis Type I
The most common, consecutive menopause, it affects women suffering from estrogen deficiency. In addition, dietary calcium deficiency, insufficient exercise and a family history of osteoporosis are favorable factors.
Osteoporosis Type II
Senile osteoporosis affects people over 70 years of age, usually male.
Is a rare condition of unknown origin that affects young people (non-menopausal women and young or mature men).
Other forms of secondary osteoporosis
They originate in another disease or in particular circumstances: prolonged bed rest, nutritional and / or endocrine disorders (including anorexia nervosa), treatments with corticosteroids, Warfarin or Heparin Calcique (anticoagulants Coumadin Calciparin).
SYMPTOMS AND SCREENING
- NO SYMPTOM AT THE ONSET OF THE DISEASE
- FFRAGILE BONES
- LOSS OF BODY HEIGHT
Osteoporosis is often asymptomatic for years. Later, there is a reduction in the size, due in particular to the deformations of the vertebral column. A propensity to fractures frequently occurs in the vertebrae (vertebral compression) or in the neck of the femur, but also on the wrist or head of the humerus. The radiographic bone densitometry test remains the benchmark measure.
Avoid over-drinking at mealtimes. Water should be the main ingested fluid in the day and should ideally be taken between meals.
- Calcium: enriched soy products, caned salmon and tuna (with fish bones), dairy products (including goat ones), almonds, sesame seeds, Chinese cabbage, etc.
- Magnesium: dark chocolate, white or black beans, Lima beans, Brazil nuts, cashews, almonds, spinach, artichoke, pine seed, roasted soybeans, etc.
- Boron: leafy vegetables, avocados, prunes, grapes, legumes, nuts, fruits, etc.
- Vitamin D: Salmon, tuna, oysters, herring, Atlantic halibut, trout, dairy and soy products enriched in vitamin D, etc.
- Vitamin K: Borecole, Swiss chard, spinach, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, kiwi, asparagus, lettuces, cabbages, green beans, etc.
Probably as important as calcium, physical activities involving a light to moderate impact or the lifting of a charge remains a very effective means to prevent bone loss. Walking, running, tennis, hiking, gardening and weight lifting are among the most interesting activities to increase bone mass.
The younger a person becomes active, the least the risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Since bone mass accumulates until age 30, the first decades of life are critical to ensure a proper bone mass during adulthood and preventing osteoporosis in elderly years.
Among the worst beverages for bone health are the sodas and coffee :
- Coffee acidifies the body while increasing calcium excretion through the kidneys.
- For sodas, above being rich in sugar, they contain a high level of phosphoric acid (especially colas). Taken in too large amounts, phosphoric acid creates an imbalance in the calcium to phosphorus equilibrium, which is very important for bone maintenance. Opt for unsweetened fruit juices and water instead.