Coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease, known as ischemic heart disease, is the most common cardiac disease. Of the estimated 56 million deaths worldwide in 2005, more than 32% were attributed to cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. Coronary artery disease is the most common manifestation of cardiovascular disease and accounts for more than half of the cases of manifest heart failure in the general population under 75 years of age.

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in industrialized and developing countries. In European countries, cardiovascular mortality corresponds to about 40% of total mortality before the age of 74 years. The costs of coronary heart disease were estimated to be as high as 7.9% of overall health expenditures in industrialized nations.

Coronary artery disease is a progressive disease, initiated by lesions in the walls of vessels that irrigate the heart (the coronary arteries). These lesions trigger a complex process of remodeling and atherosclerosis which results in thickening of the arterial wall and thus a decrease in blood flow to the heart.

This process leads to atherosclerosis (accumulation of fatty deposits), ie, narrowing or blocking of the coronary arteries that bring oxygen-bearing blood to the heart muscle. As a result, the heart muscle can no longer function properly and may even stop completely.


  • Coronary artery disease gradually builds up by the accumulation of fatty deposits and other blood waste on the internal lining of the arteries. This is a progressive process called atherosclerosis.
  • The progression of atherosclerosis causes the formation of plaques whose size can grow to reduce blood flow in the artery and thus reduce blood supply to the heart muscle.
  • As a result, decreased blood flow to the heart and the resulting lack of oxygen can lead to angina (heart pain)
  • When an artery is completely blocked, a complete area of ​​the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and dies, this is the heart attack.
  • The key problem with coronary artery disease is that, as many people remain asymptomatic, they are unaware of the disease before the onset of the heart attack.

Coronary heart disease is part of senescence to some extent. Its progression may be faster in some people. Coronary artery disease is thought to be initiated by lesions at the innermost layer of the artery. Damaged arterial walls cause atherosclerosis, resulting in hardening of the coronary arteries and a decrease in their internal diameter. This phenomenon causes a decrease in blood flow, which reduces the oxygen supply to the heart muscle. Blood clots can also develop on the surface of the plate, further blocking the artery and completely blocking blood flow.


Risk factors for coronary heart disease include cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity and lack of physical activity.


Some people with coronary heart disease may have no symptoms until the disease is severe enough to cause chest pain, that is, a seizure disorder. Chest (angina means "strangling" in Greek). Stable angina is often the first sign of coronary heart disease. Pains or discomfort in the chest occur during activities and are relieved during rest. In the case of unstable angina, the symptoms are less predictable and can occur even at rest. This indicates the rapid progression of the disorder and an increased risk of heart attack. Coronary heart disease varies both in terms of symptoms and severity. When the coronary arteries are blocked, their ability to bring to the heart that beats the blood that it has

Need diminishes, in this case The heart no longer receives the sufficient quantity of oxygen, it is ischemia. Ischemia can result in:

  • No symptoms - is silent ischemia.
  • Angina (pain in the chest).
  • Shortness of breath.
  • A heart attack (myocardial infarction).
  • Arrhythmia or heartbeat disorders.
  • Heart failure.

For many patients, the first symptom of coronary heart disease is heart attack or sudden death without prior warning. Patients who are thought to be at risk (eg, those who experience chest pain) should be examined regularly.


It is necessary to fight coronary heart disease because it leads to a heart attack and sometimes to direct and sudden death. Controlling and eliminating risk factors should avoid coronary heart disease.

Moderate physical activity

30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily give:
  • A 50% reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. This is similar to not smoking. There is also a decrease in the risk of stroke.
  • A 50% reduction in the risk of developing type II diabetes (NIDDM). A 50% reduction in the risk of overweight (maintain a normal body weight, ie a body mass index not exceeding 25)
  • A decrease in the incidence of overloads diseases (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia).
  • A 30% reduction in the risk of high blood pressure. There is a 10 mm decrease in mercury in hypertensive patients, a similar effect to antihypertensive therapy. Reduced risk of osteoporosis.

Stop smoking

  • Blood pressure decreases and regains normal values ​​(smoking can cause an increase in blood pressure).
  • The pulse slows down and regains normal values.
  • The level of CO decreases to that of a non-smoker.
  • The level of oxygen in the blood increases to that of a non-smoker.
  • The risk of a heart attack decreases within 24 hours.
  • The vibrating eyelashes of the lungs begin to work again: if you cough and produce mucus, it is a sign of a cleaning process.
  • Complications of diseases decline.

Health diet

Slimming leads to a decrease in fat mass but also in lean body mass, which is why it is necessary to undertake very quickly a physical activity in order to develop the musculature. The diet should be balanced with adequate protein intake. Deficiency of iron, calcium and vitamins must be prevented.

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